what is iptv


When we watch television, we can notice how much television has changed throughout the years. There have been many changes in television services from the beginning. the development of television as a medium of mass communication. In 1951, the first terrestrial transmission of analog color television aired using just a single transmitter 1951 and1984. As a result, there existed a second television service provided by means of telecommunications cable (Dees et al., 2007).

After that, digital TV appeared. combines the advantages of digital transmission and compression of signals. Benefits such as this allow TV providers to broadcast a multitude of high-quality channels within a restricted bandwidth. Furthermore, bridged the gap between television and computer industries as a consequence of the digital transmission of signals in the industry In the recent past, Internet TV, often known as internet TV, has been providing television using the public Internet to provide services with no strings attached in the sphere of ISPs. To access the TV, the user needs to go to its official website. enjoy live and on-demand television programs from your service provider. YouTube is the most popular Internet TV service, with more than a billion monthly unique visitors. 85 percent of American Internet TV viewers.

IPTV, or Internet Protocol Television, is a new kind of television system that uses high-speed broadband networks to transmit multimedia services including television, video, music, text, graphics, and data.

What is IPTV?

IPTV refers to the streaming of television content over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. This contrasts with traditional delivery methods such as cable, satellite, and terrestrial television. Unlike downloaded media, IPTV allows for continuous playback of the source material. As a result, client media players can play back content (such as a TV channel) almost instantly. This is known as streaming media.

There are numerous IPTV applications that do not rely solely on the Internet protocol: (This is Internet television.) In subscriber-based telecommunications networks, set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment are commonly used to deliver IPTV to end users. IPTV can also be used to deliver content across private and corporate networks. The telecommunications industry’s ongoing standardization of IPTV is notable (e.g., European Telecommunications Standards Institute).

IPTV services are classified as live television and media, with or without related interactivity; media time-shifting, such as catch-up TV (replays a TV show that was broadcast hours or days ago), start-over TV (replays the current TV show from the beginning), and video on demand (VOD), which entails browsing and viewing items in a media catalog. IPTV services are available.

As the number of people using broadband networks grows, IPTV as a method of providing television services becomes more popular. As service providers, many companies around the world offer IPTV services. In 2009, there were nearly 600 commercial IPTV service providers (Nordström, 2009). According to Multimedia Research Group Inc., there were over 930 operators worldwide (MRG, 2012).

Definition of IPTV – Internet Protocol Television

Because of the rapid improvement of IP networks and the large expansion of consumer bandwidth, IPTV has grown in popularity as a promising method of delivering TV-related services, such as live programming, video on demand (VoD), and other continuous streaming services, to end users all over the world. In 2005, there were 2.03 million IPTV subscribers, which increased to 4.56 million in 2006 and 60 million in 2011. There were 117.39 million IPTV clients at the end of 2014, and that figure is expected to climb to 165 million by the end of 2017. According to Jacqui (2007), IPTV customers now account for more than a third of the television market. IPTV is now acknowledged as one of humanity’s greatest recent technological achievements.

It is generally recognized as a tried and true means of delivering TV-related services such as live broadcasting, VoD, and other continuous streaming services over IP-based networks, in addition to Internet telephony, gaming, and other home-networking services via IP-based systems. An ITU-T focus group described IPTV as “multimedia services such as television, video, audio, text, graphics, and data supplied over IP-based networks that manage to provide the required level of QoS/QoE, security.”

Addressability and interactivity are two of the most appealing aspects of IPTV (GlobeComm, 2006). As the world becomes more frenetic, people prefer to watch what they want, when they want, rather than being bound by a programming schedule. IPTV subscribers have this option since it allows them to pick and choose the channels they want to watch. End customers can now enjoy the unlimited interactivity of IPTV for the first time, owing to two-way communication in IP-based networks. Consumers can subscribe or unsubscribe to any channel or program at any moment using the interactivity feature, without the intervention of the service provider. IPTV, in addition to high-definition channels, allows for streaming video on demand (VoD) and simultaneous transmission of auxiliary data such as subtitles, EPG, and the ability to record and playback programming on demand. As a result, IPTV has become a popular technique of distributing TV programs. IPTV services are provided to consumers by a variety of companies across the world.

Telecom companies (network providers) are also competing fiercely to deliver IPTV services while increasing their user base and earnings (Fati et al., 2014). In 2012, there were about 900 IPTV service providers operating internationally (Nordström, 2014). According to MRG (2014), there are over a thousand of these persons in the world.

From TV to IPTV

There have been numerous modifications in television services since the invention of television. TV transmission began with a set schedule in the 1930s. Ether was utilized in this case to broadcast TV services to rooftop antennae. The coordinated administration of program scheduling enabled national broadcasting (Takayanagi, 2003). According to Dees et al., analog color television broadcasts were first made possible by ether (terrestrial broadcast) and then by cable (2007). In many countries, terrestrial and/or cable broadcasting is still the primary mode of delivering broadcast services (EBU, 2011).

With the arrival of digital video formats and digital broadcasting across cable, terrestrial, and satellite networks, a new era of television has begun. Digital television, which was first proposed in the 1990s, has advantages over analog television.

Additional channels and improved sound and picture quality are available with digital television. Furthermore, digital broadcasting enables the simultaneous distribution of more data, which is a big advantage (e.g., subtitles, EPG). Because of the increasing development of broadband networks, the current trend is toward an ‘All-over-IP’ paradigm, in which most service platforms will be combined into a single IP-based platform (Sabella, 2007). IP-based networks, for example, now provide a variety of services in addition to high-speed Web access. IP-based solutions include voice-over IP, IP surveillance, IP home appliances, and IPTV, to name a few. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the first commercial IPTV service began broadcasting via IP-based networks (Davies and Delany, 2005; OECD, 2007). Because high-speed internet networks use a digital representation of the material, IPTV enables a wide selection of channels with high quality and interactivity as compared to traditional TV systems. Furthermore, IPTV provides a number of helpful capabilities, such as the ability to send auxiliary data at the same time (such as subtitles and an electronic program guide).

Differences Between IPTV, TV, and Web TV

Differences Between IPTV, TV, and Web TV

General Architecture of IPTV

When it comes to the overall structure of IPTV, Mikczy, and Podhradsk (2009), Open IPTV Forum (2009), and Lee et al. (2009) outline the many IPTV shareholders and the relationships between them. Figure 1.1 displays the IPTV architecture and the various domains that are involved.

  • Content providers gather content from many sources and encode it to a set media coding standard, much like a film studio would. To sell content belonging to a content provider to others (such as a service provider), the content provider has the right to use suitable rights management and protection procedures.
  • Service provider domain: This one buys content from various providers, bundles it into services, and then delivers them to customers via the delivery network. It is the responsibility of delivery networks to ensure that data is safe and secure.
  • end-user domain content storage, distribution and delivery via network provider domain. A shared underlying platform connects end-users and service providers to each other in the network provider domain. There are numerous backbone and access networks to choose from, depending on the current network technology. Providers should have access to user authentication, charging, and billing systems.
  • The IPTV end-user domain consists of connected service terminals that provide IPTV services to the end-user. When a customer signs up for IPTV service, their devices are automatically connected to the provider’s network and begin receiving IPTV content.
IPTV domains

According to the IPTV domain graph, a number of reference points (RPs) should be defined among IPTV domains. Such RPs, denoted by numbers in ovals in Figure 1.1, should govern the interactions between those domains. For example, RPs 1, 4, and 6 show how the end user interacts with the network provider, service provider, and content provider, respectively. Similarly, RPs 2 and 5 depict the network provider’s interactions with both the service provider and the content provider, respectively, whereas RP 3 depicts the relationship between the service provider and the content provider. According to the previous graph, a unified platform that collaborates content providers, service providers, network providers, and end-users is highly recommended to ensure the integrity and consistency of different shareholders. This unified platform is known as an ‘IPTV delivery network.

Evolution of IPTV Delivery Network

Figure 1.2a shows a large central data center, which at one time provided video streaming services. This architecture has a flaw is known as a “single point of failure” (SPoF) that becomes apparent as the volume of incoming requests grows (Cho et al., 2008; Meng, Liu, and Yin, 2010). Additionally, the architecture suffers from long delays and network congestion, two of its main drawbacks (Golubchik et al., 2001; Mir, 2011; Nair and Jayarekha, 2010). Multiple servers are grouped together in a “server farm” configuration to distribute the workload, resulting in a scalable model known as a “server cluster.”

A request dispatcher is also included in this model (e.g., layer-4 or layer-7 dispatchers). Requests are inspected by the dispatcher, who then distributes them among the nodes in the cluster. As shown in Figure 1.2b, content can be cached in different local servers so that the content is located as close to the end-users as possible, alleviating the problems of long delays and network congestion at the central server or server cluster. SPoF remains a serious flaw at each cache server, despite the fact that cache proxies are distributed across the network to address the centralized architecture’s shortcomings.

The Key Issues of IPTV Delivery Networks

Despite the numerous benefits that effective delivery networks provide for both service providers and content consumers, designing them is a difficult task. There are also potential issues that need to be addressed. Composition, content distribution and management, resource allocation, and request redirection are all important factors to consider when building a delivery network.

Two aspects of network composition are establishing delivery network locations and determining server specifications. Content distribution and management include content selection and distribution, as well as cache/replica management. The type and size of resources required by each surrogate server are determined by its resource allocation. Request redirection includes techniques for distributing requests among servers to avoid traffic congestion (Pathan and Buyya, 2009; Xu, 2009). According to Neves et al., optimization problems can be used to solve these problems (2010). To find the best solutions to these optimization challenges, objective functions, which represent one or more business objectives, can be used. Scalability, service availability, reliability, responsiveness, security, and load balancing are all quality-of-service requirements (Pathan and Buyya, 2009; Xu, 2009; Sierra-LLamazares, 2009).

The Key Issues of IPTV Delivery Networks

Types of IPTV Streams

IPTV Streaming video is typically classified into two types based on schedule:

  • Video-on-demand services, in which the user requests that the content be delivered. These systems enable users to select their own multimedia content at any time (i.e., there are no scheduling constraints). As a result, they are frequently associated with time-shifted multimedia content streaming.
  • Multicast services: occurs when content is scheduled for delivery and users request inclusion in the destination list. In this case, the user’s ability to select multimedia content is limited (i.e., the user must accept scheduling constraints). The most common application for these devices is to stream content on the fly. While both options can be used for scheduling.

While both scheduling options can be used to transmit video from terrestrial and satellite channels, only VoD is typically used to distribute prerecorded content, such as that read from a DVD.

Framework of IPTV

Streaming is done in real-time. Re-broadcasting live events, such as sporting events, is the most common use of this term In this case, only DVB-S and DVB-T are considered sources. Three sources (DVB-S, DVB-T, and DVD) and two streaming strategies (as described earlier) are considered (TSS and OFS).

The purpose of IPTV:

  • Unlimited Possibilities
  • Cost –Multicast replacing broadcast
  • REAL VoD
  • Ability to search the web for a movie
  • Triple Play –combining Voice, Video, and Data
  • Interactive communication with the audience
  • Interactive communication between consumers using IM
  • PVR (Personal Video Recorder) –accessible from anywhere
  • provides all-digital, two ways connected, unlimited channels, and personalized TV.

IPTV enhances the TV offer and delivers in a new way to provide a better experience to watch TV.

IPTV’s Impact:

  • Content
  • Convergence
  • Interactivity

Gateways connect the Internet to Standard television:

Subhashree Mishra

Transmission: IP Television channel transmission is the process of transferring the television media from a media server or television gateway to an end customer.

It is done in two ways:


Subhashree Mishra


Subhashree Mishra

IPTV Program Distribution

Book: IPTV Delivery Networks

IPTV Network Elements:

Made up of four major elements


IPTV Components:

  • Video Head End: point in-network at which linear (broadcast TV) and on-demand (movies) content is captured and formatted for distribution over an IP network.
  • Video Server: computer-based devices connected to large storage systems. Video content, previously encoded, is stored either on a disk or in large banks of RAM.
  • The Service Provider Core/Edge Network: The grouping of encoded video streams, representing the channel lineup, is transported over the service provider’s IP network.
  • The Access Network: link from the service provider to the individual household.
  • The Home Network: distributes the IPTV service throughout the home.
  • Middleware: The IPTV enabler: Middleware is the software and hardware infrastructure that connects the components of an IPTV solution. It is a distributed operating system that runs both on servers at the Telco location and on the STBs.
  • Set Top Box (STB)/Terminal: An IP set-top box is an electronic device that adapts IP television data into a format that is accessible by the end-user.
  • Content Security: A conditional access system (CAS) allows for the protection of content.

IPTV and Cable TV implementation architecture:


IPTV Services Evolves


Advantages of IPTV

  • In IPTV, a new level of interactivity among Internet, voice, and video can be established.
  • Numerous channels can be beamed to the viewer.
  • IPTV can be very helpful in providing web-based training to courses.
  • The ability of digital video recorders (DVRs) to record multiple broadcasts at once.
  • IPTV viewers will have full control over functions such as rewind, fast-forward, pause, and so on.
  • The real advantage of IPTV is that it uses Internet protocols to provide two-way communication for interactive television
  • One application might be in-game shows in which the studio audience is asked to participate by helping a contestant choose between answers.
  • Another application would be the ability to turn on multiple angles of an event, such as a touchdown, and watch it from dual angles simultaneously using picture-in-picture viewing.
  • One can also receive Web service notifications while watching IPTV for things such as incoming email and instant messages.

Challenges of IPTV

Broadcasters have spent billions of dollars on analog infrastructure, and the majority of television is analog. In the future years, “Better TV” IPTV will take over the entertainment business by replacing analog systems with IP-based digital infrastructures.

Is IPTV rising or falling

This graph explains it all perfectly.

Google Trends


The future of IPTV is IPTV NGN. A Next-Generation Network (NGN) is a packet-based telecommunications network capable of handling high traffic loads (such as voice, data, and multimedia). It is possible for content providers to distribute their heavy media material via NGN architecture.

Structure of IPTV

In general, IPTV is similar to server-based solutions in terms of structure. A head-end is a server of the enterprise-class variety. Equipment that can monitor and record signals from computers connected to its server is available. Head-end specifications and the overall architecture are quite diverse.

Provider of content

  • The content’s owner.
  • Delivers data in a variety of formats, including: tapes, files, and streams…

A company that provides a service.

  • A variety of services can be offered via IPTV.
  • Network Provider’s content is protected.
  • Streams data from service providers to the customer.


  • Choose what you want to see and then watch it.
  • Pay the bills.
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